Che si scrive sulla stampa araba. Andare oltre il termine “terrorismo”. L’Occidente "ama" la propaganda di Daesh e meno la Siria

Che  si scrive sulla stampa araba. Andare oltre il termine “terrorismo”. L’Occidente "ama" la propaganda di Daesh e meno la Siria

6.08.2016 - postewd by Elio Cotronei - 

 

Di Diana Moukalled. Al-Arabiya (03/08/2016). Traduzione e sintesi di Roberta Papaleo.

Andare oltre il termine “terrorismo”

Forse i media dovrebbero smettere di usare il termine "terrorismo", perché è stato usato e abusato per distorcere e manipolare la realtà

Recentemente, Le Monde e altri media francesi hanno deciso che non pubblicheranno più foto o biografie di terroristi, perché vogliono privare le organizzazioni terroristiche del potere della glorificazione. Questo significa che, in caso di attacchi come quelli a Nizza e Rouen, non verranno pubblicate le foto dei carnefici e noi non sapremo le ragioni che li hanno spinti a tali atti.

È davvero possibile non pubblicare più informazioni sui responsabili degli attacchi, soprattutto oggi che foto e dati circolano ormai prima sugli smartphone che sui media? Una tale decisione poteva essere dibattuta una decina di anni fa, ma nel mondo odierno sembra significare arrendersi alla caotica informazione veicolata dai social network.

Queste dichiarazioni non vanno contro la gravità della decisione, che molti media francesi hanno rifiutato e considerato inutile. Il problema centrale è come i media dovrebbero trattare con gli attacchi terroristici. Ma questo dibattito non si risolverò finché non assumeremo una posizione definitiva sul termine “terrorismo”, nonché sulla ripercussione delle dichiarazioni dei media nei confronti dei responsabili e dell’approccio verso di loro.

Il termine “terrorismo” ha decine di definizioni: viene usato per condannare la violenza che noi rifiutiamo, non tutti i tipi di violenza. Quando vengono uccise persone che appartengono a un gruppo con cui non siamo d’accordo, non parliamo sempre di terrorismo. Ci sono infiniti esempi di questo fenomeno in Medio Oriente, ma è manifesto anche in Occidente, Francia inclusa.

I crimini vanno condannati, ma etichettarli tutti con il termine “terrorismo”, escludendo quello che alcune forze militari stanno facendo, non è giusto. Gli attacchi aerei della coalizione che hanno ucciso decine di civili in Siria sono meno atroci dell’uccisione di civili a Nizza o in qualsiasi altro posto? Il massacro commesso in Giappone da Satoshi Uematsu, uccidendo 18 persone nel sonno in una casa di cura, è un atto terroristico?

Forse i media dovrebbero smettere di usare il termine “terrorismo”, perché è stato usato e abusato per distorcere e manipolare la realtà. I media lo hanno persino sfruttato per presentare posizioni faziose al pubblico, invece di fornire informazioni sui fatti. Qualsiasi omicidio è terrorismo, a prescindere dagli scopi e dalle cause. Quindi, non ci dovrebbero essere due pesi e due misure.

Sapere di più sui responsabili dei crimini è necessario affinché il pubblico possa capire come prevenire questi incidenti. La conoscenza e un approccio calmo possono chiarire le idee su cosa sta succedendo. L’accuratezza e l’attenzione nel veicolare notizie sensibili non significa che i media le debbano presentare al pubblico come ci si aspetterebbe: così facendo, non facciamo altro che dare notizie incomplete, inaccurate e fuorvianti

Diana Moukalled scrive per Asharq al-Awsat, Al-Hayat e Al-Wasat. È anche editore web per la libanese Future Television, dove conduce lo show Bil Ayn Al-Mojarada (A occhio nudo).

 

Let us first go beyond the term ‘terrorism’

Le Monde and other French media outlets have decided to no longer publish photos of terrorists, because they want to deprive terrorist organizations of the potential effect of glorification. This means if an attack similar to those in Nice and Rouen happens, photos of the perpetrators will not be published, and we will not know much about what led them to commit atrocities.

Is it really possible to no longer publish photos and biographies of perpetrators, particularly in our open world where photos and information are circulated by smart phones before they are broadcast and published by media outlets? Such a decision may have been up for discussion 10 years ago, but in today’s world it seems like surrender to the massive chaos of information via social media.

These statements are not targeted against the seriousness of the decision, which many French media outlets have rejected and deemed useless. The central problem is how the media should deal with these attacks. This discussion will not be set right before we finalize our stance on the term “terrorism,” and on the repercussions of the media’s stances on perpetrators and approach toward them.

Double standard

Terrorism has dozens of definitions. The term is used to condemn the violence we reject, not all forms of violence. When people who belong to a group we disagree with are murdered, it is not always viewed as terrorism. There are endless examples of this in the Middle East, but this double standard also exists in the West, including France.

 

The term is used to condemn the violence we reject, not all forms of violence. When people who belong to a group we disagree with are murdered, it is not always viewed as terrorism

Diana Moukalled

Horrific crimes must be condemned, but describing them as terrorism while excluding what certain military forces are doing is unjust. Are coalition airstrikes that killed dozens of civilians in Manbij, Syria, less horrific than the murder of civilians in Nice or elsewhere? Is the massacre that Satoshi Uematsu committed in Japan, where he killed 18 patients in their sleep in a care home, a terrorist attack?

Perhaps the media should stop using the word terrorism, because it has been horrifically misused to distort and manipulate the truth. The term has even been exploited to present biased stances to the public, instead of providing information about an incident itself. Any act of murder is terrorism, regardless of the aims and cause of the murderer. Therefore, the media’s handling of any crime must be based on the same principle.

Getting to know Uematsu is as important as getting to know Adel Kermiche, who killed the priest in France. Their biographies and experiences are necessary for public opinion and decision-makers, as they provide knowledge that helps us understand how to prevent similar crimes. Knowledge and a calm approach can clarify what is going on.

Accuracy and attention when broadcasting sensitive news does not mean the media should present the audience with what it wants to hear - by doing so, we would end up with an incomplete, inaccurate and misleading story.

This article was first published in Asharq al-Awsat on July 25, 2016.

___________________________
Diana Moukalled is the Web Editor at the Lebanon-based Future Television and was the Production & Programming Manager with at the channel. Previously, she worked there as Editor in Chief, Producer and Presenter of “Bilayan al Mujaradah,” a documentary that covers hot zones in the Arab world and elsewhere, News and war correspondent and Local news correspondent. She currently writes a regular column in AlSharq AlAwsat. She also wrote for Al-Hayat Newspaper and Al-Wasat Magazine, besides producing news bulletins and documentaries for Reuters TV. She can be found on Twitter: @dianamoukalled.

Last Update: Wednesday, 3 August 2016 KSA 10:15 - GMT 07:15
Disclaimer: Views expressed by writers in this section are their own and do not reflect Al Arabiya English's point-of-view.    
 
______________________________________________________

L’Occidente ama la propaganda di Daesh e meno la Siria

Dobbiamo prestare ascolto ai veri giornalisti della Siria, come Khaled al-Issa, morto a soli 24 anni

L’Occidente ama la propaganda di Daesh e meno la Siria
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
1 Voto

 

Di Lizzie Porter. Middle East Eye (03/07/2016). Traduzione e sintesi di Sebastiano Garofalo.

C’è una foto della Siria che ho visto troppe volte. È quella di un combattente vestito di nero, con la bandiera dello Stato Islamico in una mano e un AK-47 nell’altra. Marcia lungo una strada di condomini in quello che dovrebbe essere la città settentrionale di Raqqa. In tutto il mondo, in un mese, ci sono circa cinque milioni di ricerche su Google per il termine “ISIS”. Noi amiamo il brivido agghiacciante che scaturisce dalla visione delle immagini che mostrano esecuzioni ed esercitazioni militari, bandiere nere increspate sotto l’afa della Mezzaluna Fertile.

Quell’immagine di Raqqa è solo una delle migliaia – probabilmente milioni – di foto che raffigurano le attività di Daesh (ISIS). È assolutamente giusto che tutto ciò sia documentato. Ciò dimostra però anche l’ossessione degli occidentali a riguardo. Ogni volta che il gruppo terroristico rivendica un attacco in Europa, l’Occidente gli offre la visibilità mediatica che ricerca. Daesh sa che i giornalisti e i politici alimentano tutto questo con dichiarazioni, immagini di alta qualità e video. E così fanno. Il gruppo terroristico gestisce un canale mediatico, al-Furqan, che produce video multilingue e pubblica centinaia di fotografie di alta qualità. Ai politici piace parlare di “giro di vite” sui simpatizzanti dell’Isis. Il terrorismo distrae da altri problemi.

Ma c’è un’alternativa all’infinita e inconsapevole propaganda in favore di Daesh. La Siria questa settimana piange la morte di un giornalista che ha documentato alcune delle peggiori violenze spesso commessoe dal regime e dai suoi alleati in Siria. Al-Issa è morto venerdì scorso a soli 24 anni, è morto in un appartamente ad Aleppo a causa dell’esplosione di un ordigno improvvisato. Amici e attivisti ritengono che si tratti di un omicidio, anche se nessun gruppo ne ha rivendicato la responsabilità. Khaled negli ultimi quattro anni ha mostrato al mondo che la stragrande maggioranza dei civili uccisi in Siria sono vittime del governo. “Non siamo in grado di coprire tutti gli episodi di sangue”, ha spiegato una volta, “abbiamo bisogno di un migliaio, se non di migliaia, di giornalisti per documentare tutti i crimini che avvengono ad Aleppo”.

Queste non saranno notizie accattivanti, ma sono fondamentali per costruire la Siria che i nostri figli vedranno in futuro. Vogliamo che le future generazioni credano che Daesh sia stata l’unica cosa che la Siria abbia mai prodotto? Anzichè parlare incessantemente del cosiddetto Stato Islamico, offrendogli la visibilità mediatica che cerca, dovremmo concentrarci di più sulla Siria com’era ed è. Dobbiamo dimostrare di più le opere come  quelle di Khaled. La sua scomparsa lascia un vuoto e noi abbiamo il dovere di ricordare persone come lui, non i soldati che cercano gloria per le strade di Raqqa.

Lizzie Porter è una giornalista freelance che si occupa di Medio Oriente e Nord Africa.

 

The West loves IS propaganda. We should listen to Syria’s real journalists instead

Instead of obsessively focusing on Islamic State, we should remember that most Syrians are normal people, and not knife-brandishing lunatics

There is one picture of Syria that I have seen too many times. It is not of the mighty 13th-century citadel of Aleppo. It is not of the bottle green forests sweeping down to the Mediterranean at Latakia. It is of a black-clad fighter, with the Islamic State flag in one hand and AK-47 in the other. He marches down a street of non-descript apartment blocks in what is believed to be the northern city of Raqqa. His brown leather sandals slap on the tarmac, with a small boy looking towards the camera in the background.

For all our condemnation of their barbaric executions and terror attacks, we cannot get enough of IS, the Islamic State of Iraq and Sham. Worldwide, there are around five million Google searches a month for the term “Isis” – and that doesn’t even include all the variations: Daesh, Islamic State, Isil, and so on.

We love the chilling thrill of pictures showing executions and military training exercises, black flags rippling under the swelter of the Fertile Crescent. That image of Raqqa is just one of the thousands – probably millions – of photos that depict IS activities. It is absolutely right that journalists, activists and analysts document them. What is not is our obsession with them.

Whenever the group claims an attack in Europe (less so when elsewhere, since we do not seem to care about them so much), the West offers IS the fame it craves. Mug shots of the alleged terror perpetrators are republished ad infinitum. For example, there are reams of Google results on Najim Laachraoui and Brahim Abdeslam, among the bombers in Brussels and Paris. City centres go into shut down. Social media creates a virtual state of emergency, allowing users to “check in” to publicise their safety.

The Turkish prime minister suggested that IS was behind the atrocious attack on Istanbul’s Ataturk airport that left 43 people dead this week. The group’s more-than-15 minutes of fame may run on.

IS “martyrs” are convinced that they die in honour. In a twisted fashion, they do.

Like the most seasoned PRs and lobbyists, IS know that journalists and politicians can be fed messages by providing statements, high-quality pictures and film. And so they do. The group runs a media channel, al-Furqan, producing videos in multiple languages; it has a dedicated spokesperson, Abu Mohammed al-Adnani; it publishes hundreds of professional quality photographs. 

A recent Brookings Institution paper on combatting IS propaganda said: “The humiliating subjugation of infidels, the public display of beheadings, the destruction of idols, and the display of state-like qualities such as currency and passports all suggest power, permanency and victory.” 

What fame and glory executioners and suicide bombers win! They kill scores of kuffar (unbelievers) and become political and media sensations at the same time.

When IS released a video threatening the UK earlier this year, Prime Minister David Cameron gave it the dignity of a response, describing it as a group that commits “the most utterly despicable and ghastly acts”… “People can see that again today.” Yes, they could – his words were another incentive for us journalists write more words, and publish more pictures.

Politicians like to talk about deterring IS attackers: no diplomacy is required. They like to talk about “cracking down” on their sympathisers. Terrorism distracts from other issues they like to keep quiet about: cosy relations with Egypt and Saudi Arabia and disability benefits cuts to name but a few. 

But there is an alternative to endless, unwitting IS propaganda.

Khaled al-Issa and Hadi al-Abdallah

Syrians this week mourned a journalist who had documented some of the worst violence in Syria, often committed by the regime and its allies.

Khaled al-Issa passed away last Friday night. He was just 24 years old.

The photographer and cameraman died from severe head injuries inflicted by an improvised explosive device (IED) near the apartment in Aleppo he shared with colleague Hadi al-Abdallah. Friends and activists believe it was an assassination, although no group has claimed responsibility. He had been rushed across the border into Turkey for medical care and was awaiting evacuation to Germany after an emergency campaign to obtain him a visa. Hadi is still alive and receiving treatment.

Khaled had spent the past four years travelling to scenes of barrel bomb attacks, airstrikes and gunfire exchanges to show the world what the numbers tell us too: the vast majority of civilians killed in Syria are victims of the government. 

Last month, in the early days of Ramadan, Khaled accompanied Hadi in Aleppo, reporting on the regime’s good spirits as it pelted the city with day after day of air strikes. His images and videos documented the injuries sustained by civilians who survived. At least 172 men, women and children were not so lucky, in the first nine days of the holy month alone.

“We are not able to cover all the killings”, Khaled once explained. “We go out to film what’s happening only in the daytime and at night we rest […] so no one sees the crimes that take place at night. We need a thousand, or actually thousands, of reporters to expose the situation and all the crimes carried out in Aleppo.”

He also documented the black humour of the banners, in English, produced in his notoriously rebellious hometown of Kafrnabel in Idlib province. They carry messages such as "Obama has proved his ineptitude to act like US president, so he transferred his shame to his US successor."

For his funeral, thousands of the town’s residents took to the streets bearing more posters. He was buried surrounded by friends and family.

Khaled also showed parts of life in Syria highlighting how – what a surprise! – most of its people are normal, and not knife-brandishing lunatics. These are not sexy bad news stories – but they are crucial in building the Syria that our children will see in the future.

Do we want future generations to believe that IS was the only thing ever to flourish in Syria? Do we want them to overshadow artists such as Nizar Qabbani, revered throughout the Arab world for his love poetry? The extraordinary waterwheels – norias – of Hama, built during the Roman and Byzantine eras? The country’s Christians, and their monasteries of Ma’loula and Saidnaya? And, more recently, the towns such as Kafrnabel, wryly defiant as ever? The volunteer defence workers who risk their lives every day – filmed by people such as Khaled – to rescue civilians from piles of rubble? The children educated in underground schools, the safest places to learn the ABC in bombed-out areas?

Instead of talking incessantly about IS, offering them the fame they seek, we should give more time to Syria as it was and is.

We should show more of work like Khaled's. His passing will leave a gap in what we know about this war, and how our children see it, and perhaps, even, one day, who is held accountable. We should remember people like him, not the soldiers seeking glory on the streets of Raqqa.

- Lizzie Porter is a freelance foreign news and features journalist with a focus on the Middle East and North Africa. She has special interests in heritage, displaced populations, and women's and social issues. You can follow her on Twitter: @lcmporter

The views expressed in this article belong to the author and do not necessarily reflect the editorial policy of Middle East Eye.

Photo: Syrian journalist Khaled al-Issa and Hadi al-Abdallah posing for the camera (Facebook).

 
  

 

Cerca nel sito